Синдром «сухого» глаза: причины и последствия.

“Dry eye”: causes and consequences

Синдром «сухого» глаза: причины и последствия.


Dry eye problems are an invisible partner of many smartphone owners. In addition to burning and pain, dry eyes lead to impaired vision and can transform into blindness. 


This syndrome is “popular” among the elderly, gamers, and office workers, as well as all users of smartphones who cannot imagine their daily life without the screen of their favorite gadget. 


Read in today’s article. What is the cause of the formation of a “dry eye”? How to prevent its appearance? 


Dry eye is a specific disease that is provoked by an insufficient degree of moisture. Dry eyes are caused by low tear production from the gland or excessive drying of the outer protective layer. 


For the normal functioning of our organs of vision, they must constantly be hydrated. Under normal conditions, this happens through the blinking function, but tears do more than moisturizing. 


The external tissues of the eyeball are saturated with vitamins, mineral complexes, and nutrients with their help. Disinfection from viruses and pathogenic microbes, lubricant for better use of the eyelid, is activated.


External symptoms of dry eyes are:


      • a feeling of the presence of small particles that scratch the surface of the eyes;
      • pain, itching, and burning;
      • excessive tearing;
      • the heaviness of the eyelids;
      • blurred vision or ” mist”;
      • painful sensations in bright light;
      • obsessive desire to rub the eyelids.


Excessive tearing is a protective reaction of the body, which tries to compensate for the lack of moisture and nutrients in this way. 


In clinical and laboratory conditions, the syndrome is detected using a special test – Schirmer’s test. According to this test, special paper material that absorbs moisture is placed under the surface of the eyelids. 


The test does not cause any particular discomfort and is practically painless for the patient. By analyzing the amount of fluid, doctors determine the degree and the adequacy of hydration of the eye surface.


The factors of everyday life that provoke the appearance of the syndrome are:


  • continued exposure in rooms with air that was dried by air conditioners;

  • gender and hormonal factors;

  • unbalanced nutrition;

  • exhaustion;

  • prolonged use of soft types of contact lenses;

  • performed the procedure of laser correction;

  • taking medications;

  • chronic diseases – diabetes, conjunctivitis, arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and others;

  • dermatological diseases;

  • flight of an airplane;

  • radiation or chemotherapy;

  • smoke or air pollution, wind, low humidity, other anthropogenic and natural factors;

  • age factors – over the years, the number of cells that produce tears decreases;

  • long-term and intensive use of gadgets.


The last factor is one of the determining factors nowadays. The long-term concentration of sight on a closely spaced screen leads to the fact that, according to statistics, the frequency of blinking decreases by about three times. 


Forgetting to blink with the required frequency, we harm our health and our vision. Ultimately, dry eye syndrome can have the most negative consequences – a partial or complete loss of the ability to see fully. 


Against the background of the syndrome, patients often have concurrent diseases, such as corneal ulcers and scars, keratitis, and others.


The most popular and common treatment for dry eye is the local use of antibiotics or artificial teardrops. However, it must be remembered that it is impossible to self-medicate this disease. 


There are too many products on the modern market that differ in composition, nature of the action, and mode of action. Only a qualified ophthalmologist can choose the right drops, taking into account all individual factors, after a personal examination of the patient.


The second most popular method of treatment is the stimulation of the glands with a laser. After carrying out the procedure, which lasts about six months, the doctor can not only increase the level of moisture but also improves the chemical composition of the tear. 


If the syndrome is caused by chronic diseasesб it is necessary to work on their treatment, eliminating the cause of insufficient moisture. The ophthalmologist may recommend a course of laser correction for patients with soft lenses, which will also eliminate the cause of the syndrome. 


However, treatment is still an extreme action. The best way to combat the formation of dry eye syndrome is prevention. 


First of all, it is necessary to change the mode of work or life. You should have a good rest, healthy sleep, and balanced nutrition. It will help strengthen the immune system and improve the quality of vision. 


Carefully monitor the level of humidity in the premises of an apartment or office. If it is necessary, you can use ordinary household humidifiers. 


Avoid directing air currents from the fan to the face or excessively drive the car with the open windows. 


On the street, especially in the summer, you should wear sunglasses. They do not only protect your eyes from intense sunlight but also help to avoid drying out, getting on the surface of the cornea of sand, dirt, and other small particles.


For active users of smartphones and tablets, we recommend using a simple reminder application that will signal at regular intervals about the need to blink. Using the application helps to avoid many vision problems, providing the desired degree of hydration, saturation with nutrients and minerals. 


Besides, a balanced blinking pattern provides the brain with the proper rest. It needs to maintain optimal performance levels, which is especially important for office workers. 


The app will naturally keep your eyes healthy, save money on doctor visits, and provide protection against dry eyes.

Read about a similar problem: How to cope with the “sand” in the eyes